24.5.17

Recicladores de residuos electrónicos se transforman en una empresa social





Empezar a andar. Emprendedores que trabajan en el Centro de Convivencia Barrial (CCB) del barrio Molino Blanco y que depende del Distrito Sur, celebraron la firma un convenio de trabajo que permitirá el desarrollo y crecimiento en el reciclado de residuos electrónicos.

En efecto, en el CCB, enclavado en el sur del sur rosarino, funciona, desde 2014, el programa de reciclado de Residuos de Aparatos Eléctricos y Electrónicos (Raee), el cual firmó un convenio entre la Municipalidad de Rosario y Njambre (ver aparte), con la meta de convertirse en una empresa social.

La tarea del CCB es recibir los residuos electrónicos e informáticos domiciliarios que la Municipalidad recolecta en forma gratuita los últimos viernes y sábado de cada mes y procesarlos.

En este sentido, Antonio Lugo, coordinador del programa explicó que “aquí se recibe el material, se clasifica y se selecciona lo que pueda servir”. Y agregó: “Una parte se utiliza para armar nuevos equipos y el resto se limpia, se manda a moler y con ese producto molido se desarrolla un material reciclado que se vende y genera ingresos”.

Todos los jóvenes que trabajan en este proyecto realizaron una capacitación intensiva de Reciclado de Residuos Informáticos que se dicta en el CCB y que fue el puntapié inicial del proyecto de trabajo.

En este marco, Lugo señaló que “todo esto lo inició el ingeniero Eduardo Rodríguez con un curso de reparación y reciclado de PC, a partir de un convenio de la Municipalidad con el Cecla (Centro de Capacitación Laboral para Adultos)”. “Rodríguez es el profe que todavía da el curso de reciclado y un poco el padre de todos los chicos”, dice Lugo.

HACIA LA EMPRESA SOCIAL

En este marco, para el programa y todos los actores involucrados, la concreción del convenio con Njambre es fundamental y el principio de un paso fundamental hacia la concreción de empresa social.

La historia reciente señala que el pasado 28 de abril fue un día clave para los recicladores de Molino Blanco, ya que la intendenta de Rosario Mónica Fein y el secretario de Economía Social, Nicolás Gianelloni, firmaron el acuerdo tripartito con Njambre y el CCB.

Así, el compromiso es, en el plazo de un año, convertir el espacio en una empresa social basada en el reciclado de residuos informáticos y electrónicos, generando un modelo de negocio sustentable que cuide el medio ambiente y cree condiciones de trabajo dignas.

Esto significa la posibilidad de ampliar el espacio físico pero sobre todo de emplear más jóvenes de manera continua.

“Eso es el objetivo de la institución. Para nosotros es una apuesta muy fuerte porque queremos que los chicos salgan del curso y puedan formar parte de una empresa social, darles una permanencia y estabilidad. Queremos llegar a tener al menos diez pibes laburando”, remarcó Horacio Garbulla, coordinador general del CCB.

Por su parte, Lugo precisó que “la idea es acaparar todo el reciclado de residuos informáticos domiciliarios que recolecta la Municipalidad y que todos esos beneficios queden acá”.

Además, planean ofrecer el mismo servicio a gran escala, para empresas y comercios, y contar con una molienda propia que les permita no tener que tercerizar parte del proceso de reciclado.

“Los chicos han descubierto capacidades y virtudes que no pueden quedar sin explotar. Desde acá hacemos todo para que no se alejen. Por eso, en el mientras tanto, buscamos llevar la mayor cantidad de potenciales emprendedores al programa Rosario Emprende y acompañarlos en ese proceso”, cuenta Garbulla.

El desarrollo del programa de reciclaje de Raee es sólo una de las aristas en las que se trabaja en el CCB de Molino Blanco desde el 2014. Allí también se dictan capacitaciones en panadería y panificación, carpintería, electricidad domiciliaria, además de las de reciclaje y operador de PC. “Además, hay talleres de graffiti y pintura, ajedrez, artes urbanas (circo) y clases de gimnasia”, enumera Garbulla.

Y agregó: “Estamos muy bien y tanto los talleres como las capacitaciones están al ciento por ciento. Cada capacitación tiene alrededor de 15, 16 personas”.

En este marco, el coordinador general del CCB señaló: “Todos funcionan en el marco del programa provincial Nueva Oportunidad para que los chicos reciban una beca y trabajamos con la Secretaría de Economía Social para lograr la inserción laboral después de la formación. Los cursos relacionados a la informática son los que más marcan la identidad del espacio. Ahí los chicos tienen el incentivo de que durante el taller se arman su propia computadora”.

Finalmente, Garbulla remarcó: “El desafío es importante, nosotros queremos que crezca. Que este sea para el barrio el lugar donde estén los pibes”. Una definición conceptual de cara a un futuro complejo.

War on waste: Why we should recycle our old mobile phones

Got a drawer at home that is storing a few of your old mobile phones?

You're not alone.

There are more than 23 million unused phones in Australia according to industry-funded recycler MobileMuster, and they represent a large amount of natural resources that could be recycled.

In fact, each unused phone presents 23 million opportunities to reuse valuable metals, University of Adelaide professor Derek Abbott said.

"As we get more and more advanced devices, there are more unusual elements being used," he said.

"The most advanced Intel microchips use an element in them called hafnium, which is a rare element."

MobileMuster estimates 62 per cent of Australians keep their mobile phones for two years.

One in six reuse or re-gift their phone; of the remainder, only 12 per cent decide to recycle it.

"It's been estimated that if I were to randomly grab one million mobile phones and extract all the gold out of them, there would be over 30 kilograms of gold in there," Professor Abbott said.

In the same amount of phones, Professor Abbott said, there would be more than 300 kilograms of silver.

"The copper would be over 10 tonnes."

Professor Abbott said although the amounts of recoverable per device was small, the overall material available to be recycled from unused phones was massive.

"There are many rare elements in there, and these resources do get stretched.

"It's probably getting to a point where it is cheaper to recycle than it is to dig up more ore and search for this stuff.

"If you had a tonne of old iPhones, the density of gold in there, although it is tiny, is actually 300 times more than in the same tonnage of gold ore.

"Mining old phones, in theory, should be cheaper than going out and mining the ore to start with."

MobileMuster is a free mobile phone recycling service, with donation points throughout Australia and prepaid envelopes available from most post offices.

Australians update their mobile phones every two years on average.

7.5.17

Gold processing bacteria help to recycle electronics

Adelaide - There are species of bacteria that efficient at processing of gold ore. Applications include recycling electronics as well as use in exploration for new deposits. A new study demonstrates the advantages.

The study has been undertaken at the University of Adelaide and it has been running for ten years. The focus is with how gold can be dissolved, dispersed and re-concentrated into nuggets by the activities of microorganisms; a process called biogeochemical processing.

One area of interest is how long the cycle takes to complete and whether the process can be optimized, including speeding up the conversion process. This is with a view to industrializing the microbial activity on a larger scale.

The process is described by Dr Frank Reith in a research brief: "In the natural environment, primary gold makes its way into soils, sediments and waterways through biogeochemical weathering and eventually ends up in the ocean."

With the role of microbes, he adds: "On the way bacteria can dissolve and re-concentrate gold - this process removes most of the silver and forms gold nuggets."

The bacterium that undertakes the process most efficiently is calledDelftia acidovorans. The organism has a King Midas-like touch, and this is a natural part of the organism's self-defense mechanism. Dissolved gold is toxic to the organism, so it has evolved a mechanism to turn poisonous ions into harmless gold particles that eventually accumulate outside of the bacterial cell. A second bacterium species called Cupriavidus metallidurans can also produce gold nuggets.

What the researchers hope is to find an economically viable way of performing gold extraction from ore and re-processing old tailings or recycled electronics. At present this process is costly, meaning that many electronic devices simply end up in landfill sites rather than being recycled for their potentially valuable competes.

The reason the process is costly is because it takes considerable amounts of time. This time is very short in geological terms, but it is too long for any person to make it commercially effective. Through the use of high-resolution electron-microscopy, the time taken for the microbial processing is anything between 3.5 and 11.7 years for each stage of the process, meaning that it could be up to 60 years before gold is completely recovered and processed.

However, new insights into the process mean that innovative processing techniques could be achieved and this represents the next phase of the continuing research project.

The research is published in the journalChemical Geology, under the heading "Secondary gold structures: Relics of past biogeochemical transformations and implications for colloidal gold dispersion in subtropical environments."

6.5.17

Overview of E-waste Recycling Market in Global Industry : Technology, Applications, Growth and Status 2017

ResearchMoz presents professional and in-depth study of "Global E-waste Recycling Market Research Report 2017".

In this report, the global E-waste Recycling market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022.

Geographically, this report is segmented into several key Regions, with production, consumption, revenue (million USD), market share and growth rate of E-waste Recycling in these regions, from 2012 to 2022 (forecast), covering
United States
EU
China
Japan
South Korea
Taiwan

Global E-waste Recycling market competition by top manufacturers, with production, price, revenue (value) and market share for each manufacturer; the top players including
SIMS RECYCLING SOLUTION
Stena Techno World
Kuusakoski
Umicore
environCom
WASTE MANAGEMENT
Eletronic Recyclers International
GEEP
CIMELIA Resource Recovery
Veolia
Gem
Dongjiang

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
Infocomm Technology (ICT) Equipment
Home Appliances

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On the basis on the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share and growth rate of E-waste Recycling for each application, including
Enterprise
Government
ENGO

Table of Contents

2 Global E-waste Recycling Market Competition by Manufacturers
2.1 Global E-waste Recycling Capacity, Production and Share by Manufacturers (2012-2017)
2.1.1 Global E-waste Recycling Capacity and Share by Manufacturers (2012-2017)
2.1.2 Global E-waste Recycling Production and Share by Manufacturers (2012-2017)
2.2 Global E-waste Recycling Revenue and Share by Manufacturers (2012-2017)
2.3 Global E-waste Recycling Average Price by Manufacturers (2012-2017)
2.4 Manufacturers E-waste Recycling Manufacturing Base Distribution, Sales Area and Product Type
2.5 E-waste Recycling Market Competitive Situation and Trends
2.5.1 E-waste Recycling Market Concentration Rate
2.5.2 E-waste Recycling Market Share of Top 3 and Top 5 Manufacturers
2.5.3 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion

3 Global E-waste Recycling Capacity, Production, Revenue (Value) by Region (2012-2017)
3.1 Global E-waste Recycling Capacity and Market Share by Region (2012-2017)
3.2 Global E-waste Recycling Production and Market Share by Region (2012-2017)
3.3 Global E-waste Recycling Revenue (Value) and Market Share by Region (2012-2017)
3.4 Global E-waste Recycling Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
3.5 United States E-waste Recycling Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
3.6 EU E-waste Recycling Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
3.7 China E-waste Recycling Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
3.8 Japan E-waste Recycling Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
3.9 South Korea E-waste Recycling Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
3.10 Taiwan E-waste Recycling Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)

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4 Global E-waste Recycling Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Region (2012-2017)
4.1 Global E-waste Recycling Consumption by Region (2012-2017)
4.2 United States E-waste Recycling Production, Consumption, Export, Import (2012-2017)
4.3 EU E-waste Recycling Production, Consumption, Export, Import (2012-2017)
4.4 China E-waste Recycling Production, Consumption, Export, Import (2012-2017)
4.5 Japan E-waste Recycling Production, Consumption, Export, Import (2012-2017)
4.6 South Korea E-waste Recycling Production, Consumption, Export, Import (2012-2017)
4.7 Taiwan E-waste Recycling Production, Consumption, Export, Import (2012-2017)

1.4.17

Peru's illegal gold mines are devastating the Amazon rain forest

Peru's illegal gold mines are devastating the Amazon rain forest

QUINCE MIL, Peru — The roads cutting through the Amazon rain forest are lined with signs encouraging people to protect Peru's natural resources and take care of the environment, but people aren’t sure why the government posts them anymore.

Many rivers in Peru run orange with pollution from illegal gold mining, and trees were cut away to make room for sifting towers and excavators.

Peru, the largest gold producer in Latin America and the sixth largest in the world, has long struggled with illegal gold mining. Thousands of small, unchecked operations extracting gold from the Amazon are responsible for nearly 200 square miles of deforestation and mercury poisoning to the water so severe that several regions declared a state of emergency last year.

President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski took office in July promising to tackle the problems of "informal," or illegal, mining with an ambitious plan to overhaul antiquated and inefficient government rules. He imposed stricter environmental regulations, streamlined the process to grant permits for legal mines and offered financial incentives for mining operations to submit to government oversight.

But the miners resist those changes because of a thriving black market for gold.

“The whole country is like a Mafia. It’s a big Mafia,” Marcos Llovera, 40, of Cusco, said about the gold mining industry. “How are you going to win against a Mafia? You can’t.”

Llovera runs a mine in this small town of Quince Mil, using one rented excavator and one sifter. He sells the extracted gold to international contacts based in Lima, the country’s capital.

The process left large pockets of the area bald of vegetation, eroded riverbanks and turned the water brown, orange and even a light blue, as Llovera and competing "informal" miners push their excavations deeper into the jungle. This unrestricted mining is the type of activity that Kuczynski is aiming to cut in half by 2021.

Llovera’s mine, like most small operations across Peru, works informally because of an administrative loophole. He received authorization from the federal government to break ground, but can work without oversight because many environmental and operational permits are handled on the regional level.

Miscommunication between government agencies means small mines, such as Llovera's, can operate in bureaucratic limbo while officials scramble to determine which are legal, who is responsible for enforcement, and what to do about pollution produced from the mining.

A law went into effect in March to simplify the process by cutting the required federal permits from six to three. Many other regulations were tweaked to improve oversight of machinery use and access to water, but the number of "informal" mines shows no sign of decreasing.

Kuczynski has tried to persuade miners to submit to government oversight and met with workers in the mineral-rich region of Madre de Dios last year to establish regular talks. But only 114 of 70,000 miners who agreed in September to formalize and become legal have actually done so.

“There’s no willingness to formalize in those mining sectors,” said Julia Cuadros Falla of the environmental advocacy group CooperAcción, which fights illegal mining in Peru. “No one is interested in formalizing.”

Cuadros said attempting to “make deals” with miners and cleaning up the permit process are the wrong approach since environmental exploitation and tax evasion have been key to successful small-scale mining for decades.

She argued that Kuczynski’s administration needs to improve coordination between federal and regional agencies because all levels of the government that try to protect the Amazon have ceased to effectively work together.

Many high-traffic gold trade routes to Chile, Bolivia, Ecuador and Brazil that were shut down since Kuczynski took office have already been replaced by new ones.

“The laws exist, but there isn’t effective action being taken to enforce them,” said Marta Ojeda, an official with the National Forest and Wildlife Service in the Quispicanchi-Cusco District.

She said her office tries to disband mining operations that use unauthorized heavy machinery and fines them for cutting down trees or polluting the water, but such moves often fail to make a lasting impact without coordination with other agencies.

The Peruvian army occasionally comes into the area to blow up unguarded mining equipment, but Ojeda said she never knows when that is going to happen, much less what to do with the destroyed equipment left to rot in the jungle.

 

Policemen look at the destruction of camps and pumps used for illegal gold mining in Madre de dios



BCCK manages e-waste with environment in mind

KUCHING: Borneo Convention Centre Kuching (BCCK) recently enlisted the expertise of Shan Poornam Metals Sdn Bhd (SPM) to manage its ICT waste which included computer monitors and central processing units.

BCCK invests in ICT equipment and facilities and its ICT Department adopted a long-term solution to deal with e-waste.

Electronic scrap components such as CPUs contain harmful components such as lead, cadmium, beryllium or brominated flame retardants.

Recycling and disposal of these components are being undertaken by licensed waste management operators to avoid unsafe exposure and leakage of harmful materials into the environment.

The amount of general waste generated by events hosted at BCCK also warrants proper management. Plastic, glass, aluminium and paper are segregated by BCCK's waste sorting unit prior to collection by SPM, licensed by the Department of Environment (DoE) Malaysia.

"BCCK is committed to managing the waste that goes out from our centre in the safest possible ways. We have the assurance of ISO management systems from appointed vendor SPM to process, salvage and turn our waste into re-useable materials," said BCCK chief executive officer Eric van Piggelen.

SPM and the Japanese International Corporation Agency (JICA) spearhead the recycling and recovery of household e-waste and chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs (chemicals which destroy the Earth's ozone layer), winning numerous awards for innovation and leadership in environmental management solutions.

Among these awards are the Leadership in Renewable Energy & Technology Award by FGCCC and The Leaders International, UAE, Dubai and the Prime Minister's Hibiscus Award 2010/2011 - Special Project on Innovation towards Environmental Solutions.

The company also handles secondary alloy alum ingot and refining of precious group metal (PGM) and copper.

SPM has 500 trained personnel with comprehensive expertise in waste management. The company has various international certifications that validate its waste management processes namely ISO 14001 Environmental Management System, ISO 9001 Quality Management System and OHSAS 18001 Occupational Health and Safety Management.

IISc researchers' ecofriendly way of recycling e-waste

Indian Institute of Science (IISc) researchers have found a novel way to recycle the mounting pile of electronic waste more efficiently and in an environmentally friendly manner. According to the United National Environmental Programme, about 50 million tonnes of e-waste is generated annually across the world.

The new approach is based on the idea of crushing e-waste into nanosize particles using a ball mill at very low temperature ranging from -50 to -150 degree C.

When crushed to nanosize particles for about 30 minutes, different classes of materials - metals, oxides and polymer - that go into the making of electronic items get physically reduced into their constituent phases, which can then be separated without using any chemicals. The use of low-temperature grinding eliminates noxious emission. The results of the study were published in the journal Materials Today.

"The behaviour of individual materials is different when they are pulverised at room temperature. While metal and oxides get mixed, the local temperature of polymer increases during grinding and so the polymer melts instead of breaking," says Dr. Chandra Sekhar Tiwary from Materials Engineering Department at IISc and the first author of the paper. "The polymer starts reacting with the rest of the components and forms a chunk. So we can't separate the individual components."

"The deformation behaviour at low temperature is very different from room temperature. There are two processes that happen when milling. The polymer material breaks but metals get welded, some sort of solid-state welding resulting in mixing; the welded metals again get broken during milling. At low temperature mixing does not happen," says Prof. K. Chattopadhyay from the Materials Engineering Department at IISc and the corresponding author of the paper. There is also a lower limit to which materials can be broken into when e-waste is milled at room temperature. The maximum size reduction that can be achieved is about of 200 nanometre. But in the case of low temperature ball milling the size can be reduced to 20-150 nanometres.

Novel design

The low-temperature ball mill was designed by Dr. Tiwary. The cryo-mill grinding chamber is cooled using liquid nitrogen and a small hardened steel ball is used for grinding the material in a controlled inert atmosphere using argon gas. "The interface remains clean when broken in an inert atmosphere," says Prof. Chattopadhyay.

"One of the main purposes of ball milling [at room temperature] is to mix materials. But in the case of ball milling at low temperature we did not observe any mixing; the individual components separate out really well. We wanted to use this property more constructively. So we took two printed circuit boards from optical mouse and milled them for 30 minutes," recalls Dr. Tiwary.

The polymer becomes brittle when cooled to -120 degree C and ball milling easily breaks it into a fine power. Metals and oxides too get broken but are a bit bigger in size.

The crushed powder was then mixed with water to separate the components into individual classes of materials using gravity. The powder separated into two layers - the polymer floats at the top due to lower density, while metals and oxides of similar size and different density settle at the bottom. The bottom layer when diluted further separated into oxides at the top and metals at the bottom. The oxides and metals were present as individual elements.

"Our low-temperature milling separates the components into single phase components without using any chemicals, which is not possible using other techniques," says Prof. Chattopadhyay. "Our process is scalable and is environment friendly though it uses higher energy."